Endemics in Family Order

Acanthaceae
Angkalanthus
Angkalanthus oligophylla
Anisotes diversifolius
Ballochia
Ballochia amoena
Ballochia atro-virgata
Ballochia rotundifolia
Barleria aculeata
Barleria popovii
Barleria tetracantha
Blepharis spiculifolia
Chorisochora minor
Chorisochora striata
Dicliptera effusa
Hypoestes pubescens
Justicia alexandri
Justicia rigida
Justicia takhinensis
Neuracanthus aculeatus
Rhinacanthus scoparius
Ruellia insignis
Trichocalyx
Trichocalyx obovatus
Trichocalyx orbiculatus

Amaranthaceae
Aerva microphylla
Aerva revoluta
Psilotrichum aphyllum

Amaryllidaceae
Crinum balfourii

Anacardiaceae
Rhus thyrsiflora

Apiaceae
Nirarathamnos
Nirarathamnos asarifolius
Oreofraga morrisiana
Rughidia cordatum
Rughidia milleri

Apocynaceae
Cryptolepis arbuscula
Cryptolepis intricata
Cryptolepis macrophylla
Cryptolepis socotrana
Duvaliandra
Duvaliandra dioscoridis
Echidnopsis bentii
Echidnopsis inconspicua
Echidnopsis insularis
Echidnopsis milleri
Echidnopsis socotrana
Marsdenia robusta
Sarcostemma socotranum
Secamone cuneifolia
Secamone socotrana
Vincetoxicum linifolium

Arecaceae
Dracaena cinnabari

Asclepiadaceae
Mitolepis
Mitolepis intricata
Socotrella dolichocnema

Asparagaceae
Aloe jawiyon
Aloe perryi
Aloe squarrosa
Chlorophytum graptophyllum
Dipcadi guichardii
Dipcadi kuriensis
Drimia porphyrostachys

Aspleniaceae
Asplenium schweinfurthii

Asteraceae
Dicoma cana
Distephanus qazmi
Helichrysum aciculare
Helichrysum arachnoides
Helichrysum balfourii
Helichrysum nimmoanum
Helichrysum paulayanum
Helichrysum rosulatum
Helichrysum sphaerocephalum
Helichrysum suffruticosum
Kleinia scotti
Lannea transulta
Launaea crepoides
Launaea rhynchocarpa
Launaea socotrana
Melhania milleri
Micromeria remota
Pluchea obovata
Pluchea obovata
Prenanthes amabilis
Pulicaria aromatica
Pulicaria dioscorides
Pulicaria diversifolia
Pulicaria elegans
Pulicaria lanata
Pulicaria stephanocarpa
Pulicaria vieraeoides
Ruellia dioscoridis
Ruellia kuriensis
Ruellia paulayana
Scaevola socotraensis
Vernonia cockburniana
Vernonia unicata

Begoniaceae
Begonia samhaensis
Begonia socotrana

Boraginaceae
Cordia obovata
Cystostemon socotranus
Echiochilon pulvinata
Heliotropium balfourii
Heliotropium dentatum
Heliotropium derafontense
Heliotropium kuriense
Heliotropium nigricans
Heliotropium paulayanum
Heliotropium riebeckii
Heliotropium shoabense
Heliotropium socotranum
Heliotropium wagneri
Trichodesma laxiflorum
Trichodesma microcalyx
Trichodesma scotti
Wellstedia socotrana

Brassicaceae
Erucastrum rostratum
Farsetia inconspicua
Farsetia socotrana
Hemicrambe townsendii
Lachnocapsa
Lachnocapsa spathulata
Nesocrambe socotrana

Burseraceae
Boswellia ameero
Boswellia bullata
Boswellia dioscorides
Boswellia elongata
Boswellia nana
Boswellia popoviana
Boswellia socotrana
Commiphora ornifolia
Commiphora parvifolia
Commiphora planifrons
Commiphora socotrana

Campanulaceae
Campanula balfourii

Capparaceae
Cadaba insularis

Caryophyllaceae
Gymnocarpos bracteatus
Gymnocarpos kuriensis
Haya
Haya obovata
Polycarpaea balfourii
Polycarpaea caespitosa
Polycarpaea hassalensis
Polycarpaea hayoides
Polycarpaea kuriensis
Polycarpaea paulayana
Polycarpaea spicata

Cleomaceae
Cleome socotrana

Colchicaceae
Iphigenia socotrana

Convolvulaceae
Convolvulus grantii
Convolvulus hildebrandtii
Convolvulus sarmentosus
Corchorus erodiodes
Metaporana obtusa
Seddera fastigiata
Seddera pedunculata
Seddera semhahensis
Seddera spinosa

Crassulaceae
Eureiandra balfourii
Kalanchoe farinacea
Kalanchoe robusta

Cucurbitaceae
Dendrosicyos
Dendrosicyos socotrana

Cyperaceae
Bulbostylis hispidula
Cyperus rotundus

Dirachmaceae
Dirachma socotrana

Discoreaceae
Dioscorea lanata

Ebenaceae
Euclea balfourii
Euclea laurina

Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum socotranum

Euphorbiaceae
Cephalocroton socotranus
Croton sarcocarpus
Croton socotranus
Croton sulcifructus
Euphorbia abdelkuri
Euphorbia arbuscula
Euphorbia hajhirensis
Euphorbia hamaderohensis
Euphorbia kischenensis
Euphorbia kuriensis
Euphorbia leptoclada
Euphorbia obcordata
Euphorbia schweinfurthii
Euphorbia socotrana
Euphorbia spiralis
Jatropha unicostata
Tragia balfouriana

Fabaceae
Acacia pennivenia
Acacia sarcophylla
Chapmannia gracilis
Chapmannia reghidensis
Chapmannia sericea
Chapmannia tinireana
Crotalaria socotrana
Crotalaria strigulosa
Dichrostachys dehiscens
Indigofera marmorata
Indigofera nephrocarpoides
Indigofera sokotrana
Lotus mollis
Lotus ononopsis
Paracalyx balfourii
Senna socotrana
Taverniera sericophylla
Tephrosia odorata
Tephrosia socotrana
Trigonella falcata
Zygocarpum caeruleum

Gentianaceae
Exacum affine
Exacum caeruleum
Exacum socotranum

Geraniaceae
Pelargonium insularis

Hypericaceae
Hypericum balfourii
Hypericum fieriense
Hypericum scopulorum
Hypericum socotranum
Hypericum tortuosum

Iridaceae
Babiana socotrana

Lamiaceae
Clerodendrum galeatum
Clerodendrum leucophloeum
Lavandula nimmoi
Leucas flagellifolia
Leucas hagghierensis
Leucas kishenensis
Leucas penduliflora
Leucas samhaensis
Leucas spiculifera
Leucas virgata
Orthosiphon ferrugineus
Plectranthus socotranus
Teucrium balfourii
Teucrium socotranum

Liliaceae
Ledebouria grandifolia
Ledebouria insularis

Lythraceae
Punica protopunica

Malpighiaceae
Acridocarpus socotranus

Malvaceae
Grewia bilocularis
Grewia milleri
Grewia turbinata
Hibiscus dioscorides
Hibiscus diriffan
Hibiscus macropodus
Hibiscus malacophyllus
Hibiscus noli-tangere
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus stenanthus

Meliaceae
Turraea socotrana

Moraceae
Dorstenia gigas
Dorstenia socotrana

Nyctaginaceae
Commicarpus heimerlii
Commicarpus simonyi

Orchidaceae
Holothrix socotrana

Orobanchaceae
Graderia fruticosa
Lindenbergia sokotrana
Xylocalyx aculeolatus
Xylocalyx asper

Phyllanthaceae
Andrachne schweinfurthii
Meineckia filipes

Plantaginaceae
Nanorrhinum kuriense

Plumbaginaceae
Dyerophytum pendulum
Dyerophytum socotranum
Limonium paulayanum
Limonium sokotranum

Poaceae
Andropogon bentii
Aristida anaclasta
Dactyloctenium hackelii
Lepturus calcareus
Lepturus pulchellus
Panicum rigidum
Panicum socotranum

Polygalaceae
Polygala kuriensis

Portulacaceae
Portulaca kuriensis
Portulaca samhaensis
Portulaca sedifolia

Resedaceae
Ochradenus socotranus
Reseda viridis

Rubiaceae
Carphalea obovata
Gaillonia puberula
Gaillonia putorioides
Gaillonia thymoides
Gaillonia tinctoria
Kohautia socotrana
Kraussia socotrana
Oldenlandia aretioides
Oldenlandia balfourii
Oldenlandia bicornuta
Oldenlandia ocellata
Oldenlandia pulvinata
Placopoda virgata
Pyrostria socotrana
Tamridaea capsulifera

Rutaceae
Thamnosma socotrana

Sapindaceae
Allophylus rhoidiphyllus

Sapotaceae
Sideroxylon fimbriatum
Spiniluma discolor

Solanaceae
Lycium sokotranum
Withania adunensis
Withania riebeckii

Thymelaeaceae
Gnidia socotrana

Verbenaceae
Coelocarpum haggierensis
Coelocarpum socotranum
Priva socotrana

Vitaceae
Cissus hamaderohensis
Cissus paniculata
Cissus subaphylla


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Acacia pennivenia
Acacia sarcophylla
Acridocarpus socotranus
Aerva microphylla
Aerva revoluta
Allophylus rhoidiphyllus
Aloe jawiyon
Aloe perryi
Aloe squarrosa
Andrachne schweinfurthii
Andropogon bentii
Angkalanthus
Angkalanthus oligophylla
Anisotes diversifolius
Aristida anaclasta
Asplenium schweinfurthii
Babiana socotrana
Ballochia
Ballochia amoena
Ballochia atro-virgata
Ballochia rotundifolia
Barleria aculeata
Barleria popovii
Barleria tetracantha
Begonia samhaensis
Begonia socotrana
Blepharis spiculifolia
Boswellia ameero
Boswellia bullata
Boswellia dioscorides
Boswellia elongata
Boswellia nana
Boswellia popoviana
Boswellia socotrana
Bulbostylis hispidula
Cadaba insularis
Campanula balfourii
Carphalea obovata
Cephalocroton socotranus
Chapmannia gracilis
Chapmannia reghidensis
Chapmannia sericea
Chapmannia tinireana
Chlorophytum graptophyllum
Chorisochora minor
Chorisochora striata
Cissus hamaderohensis
Cissus paniculata
Cissus subaphylla
Cleome socotrana
Clerodendrum galeatum
Clerodendrum leucophloeum
Coelocarpum haggierensis
Coelocarpum socotranum
Commicarpus heimerlii
Commicarpus simonyi
Commiphora ornifolia
Commiphora parvifolia
Commiphora planifrons
Commiphora socotrana
Convolvulus grantii
Convolvulus hildebrandtii
Convolvulus sarmentosus
Corchorus erodiodes
Cordia obovata
Crinum balfourii
Crotalaria socotrana
Crotalaria strigulosa
Croton sarcocarpus
Croton socotranus
Croton sulcifructus
Cryptolepis arbuscula
Cryptolepis intricata
Cryptolepis macrophylla
Cryptolepis socotrana
Cyperus rotundus
Cystostemon socotranus
Dactyloctenium hackelii
Dendrosicyos
Dendrosicyos socotrana
Dichrostachys dehiscens
Dicliptera effusa
Dicoma cana
Dioscorea lanata
Dipcadi guichardii
Dipcadi kuriensis
Dirachma socotrana
Distephanus qazmi
Dorstenia gigas
Dorstenia socotrana
Dracaena cinnabari
Drimia porphyrostachys
Duvaliandra
Duvaliandra dioscoridis
Dyerophytum pendulum
Dyerophytum socotranum
Echidnopsis bentii
Echidnopsis inconspicua
Echidnopsis insularis
Echidnopsis milleri
Echidnopsis socotrana
Echiochilon pulvinata
Erucastrum rostratum
Erythroxylum socotranum
Euclea balfourii
Euclea laurina
Euphorbia abdelkuri
Euphorbia arbuscula
Euphorbia hajhirensis
Euphorbia hamaderohensis
Euphorbia kischenensis
Euphorbia kuriensis
Euphorbia leptoclada
Euphorbia obcordata
Euphorbia schweinfurthii
Euphorbia socotrana
Euphorbia spiralis
Eureiandra balfourii
Exacum affine
Exacum caeruleum
Exacum socotranum
Farsetia inconspicua
Farsetia socotrana
Gaillonia puberula
Gaillonia putorioides
Gaillonia thymoides
Gaillonia tinctoria
Gnidia socotrana
Graderia fruticosa
Grewia bilocularis
Grewia milleri
Grewia turbinata
Gymnocarpos bracteatus
Gymnocarpos kuriensis
Haya
Haya obovata
Helichrysum aciculare
Helichrysum arachnoides
Helichrysum balfourii
Helichrysum nimmoanum
Helichrysum paulayanum
Helichrysum rosulatum
Helichrysum sphaerocephalum
Helichrysum suffruticosum
Heliotropium balfourii
Heliotropium dentatum
Heliotropium derafontense
Heliotropium kuriense
Heliotropium nigricans
Heliotropium paulayanum
Heliotropium riebeckii
Heliotropium shoabense
Heliotropium socotranum
Heliotropium wagneri
Hemicrambe townsendii
Hibiscus dioscorides
Hibiscus diriffan
Hibiscus macropodus
Hibiscus malacophyllus
Hibiscus noli-tangere
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus stenanthus
Holothrix socotrana
Hypericum balfourii
Hypericum fieriense
Hypericum scopulorum
Hypericum socotranum
Hypericum tortuosum
Hypoestes pubescens
Indigofera marmorata
Indigofera nephrocarpoides
Indigofera sokotrana
Iphigenia socotrana
Jatropha unicostata
Justicia alexandri
Justicia rigida
Justicia takhinensis
Kalanchoe farinacea
Kalanchoe robusta
Kleinia scotti
Kohautia socotrana
Kraussia socotrana
Lachnocapsa
Lachnocapsa spathulata
Lannea transulta
Launaea crepoides
Launaea rhynchocarpa
Launaea socotrana
Lavandula nimmoi
Ledebouria grandifolia
Ledebouria insularis
Lepturus calcareus
Lepturus pulchellus
Leucas flagellifolia
Leucas hagghierensis
Leucas kishenensis
Leucas penduliflora
Leucas samhaensis
Leucas spiculifera
Leucas virgata
Limonium paulayanum
Limonium sokotranum
Lindenbergia sokotrana
Lotus mollis
Lotus ononopsis
Lycium sokotranum
Marsdenia robusta
Meineckia filipes
Melhania milleri
Metaporana obtusa
Micromeria remota
Mitolepis
Mitolepis intricata
Nanorrhinum kuriense
Nesocrambe socotrana
Neuracanthus aculeatus
Nirarathamnos
Nirarathamnos asarifolius
Ochradenus socotranus
Oldenlandia aretioides
Oldenlandia balfourii
Oldenlandia bicornuta
Oldenlandia ocellata
Oldenlandia pulvinata
Oreofraga morrisiana
Orthosiphon ferrugineus
Panicum rigidum
Panicum socotranum
Paracalyx balfourii
Pelargonium insularis
Placopoda virgata
Plectranthus socotranus
Pluchea obovata
Pluchea obovata
Polycarpaea balfourii
Polycarpaea caespitosa
Polycarpaea hassalensis
Polycarpaea hayoides
Polycarpaea kuriensis
Polycarpaea paulayana
Polycarpaea spicata
Polygala kuriensis
Portulaca kuriensis
Portulaca samhaensis
Portulaca sedifolia
Prenanthes amabilis
Priva socotrana
Psilotrichum aphyllum
Pulicaria aromatica
Pulicaria dioscorides
Pulicaria diversifolia
Pulicaria elegans
Pulicaria lanata
Pulicaria stephanocarpa
Pulicaria vieraeoides
Punica protopunica
Pyrostria socotrana
Reseda viridis
Rhinacanthus scoparius
Rhus thyrsiflora
Ruellia dioscoridis
Ruellia insignis
Ruellia kuriensis
Ruellia paulayana
Rughidia cordatum
Rughidia milleri
Sarcostemma socotranum
Scaevola socotraensis
Secamone cuneifolia
Secamone socotrana
Seddera fastigiata
Seddera pedunculata
Seddera semhahensis
Seddera spinosa
Senna socotrana
Sideroxylon fimbriatum
Socotrella dolichocnema
Spiniluma discolor
Tamridaea capsulifera
Taverniera sericophylla
Tephrosia odorata
Tephrosia socotrana
Teucrium balfourii
Teucrium socotranum
Thamnosma socotrana
Tragia balfouriana
Trichocalyx
Trichocalyx obovatus
Trichocalyx orbiculatus
Trichodesma laxiflorum
Trichodesma microcalyx
Trichodesma scotti
Trigonella falcata
Turraea socotrana
Vernonia cockburniana
Vernonia unicata
Vincetoxicum linifolium
Wellstedia socotrana
Withania adunensis
Withania riebeckii
Xylocalyx aculeolatus
Xylocalyx asper
Zygocarpum caeruleum


Summary

Included here is the island of Socotra in the Arabian Sea just north of Somalia.

Of the endemic vascular plants so far recorded there are about 295 species in 152 genera and 59 families. There are 8 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families. However, the family Dirachmaceae was thought to be endemic but recently a second species was found in Somalia.

References

Balgooy, Van. M. M. J. 1969. A study of the diversity of island floras. Blumea, 17: 139-178.

Brown, G., Mies, B. A. 2012. Vegetation Ecology of Socotra. Plant and Vegetation, Vol. 7. Springer.

Chapman, V. J. 1977. Africa B - the remainder of Africa. In: Ecosystems of the World 1 - Wet Coastal Ecosystems. Ed. V. J. Chapman. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

Gwynne, M. D. 1968. Socotra. In: Conservation of Vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara. Eds. I. Hedberg and O. Hedberg. Acta Phytogeogrraphica Suecica, 54: 275-279.

Miller, A. G. & Morris, M. 2004. Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago. The Royal Botanical Gardens, Edinburgh.

Milner, J. E. 1992. The Tree Book. Academic Press.

Popov, G. B. 1957. The vegetation of Socotra. Journal of the Linnean Society Botany, 55: 706-720.

Tardelli, T. &  Baldini, R. M. 2000. Botanical Report on the Island of Socotra (Yemen). Portugaliae Acta Biologica, 19: 443-453.

White, F. 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. UNESCO.