Endemics in Family Order

Acanthaceae
Acanthus balcanicus

Amaryllidaceae
Allium melanantherum

Apiaceae
Athamanta macedonica
Athamanta turbith subsp. hungarica
Bupleurum aristatum var. karglii
Carum velenovskyi
Eryngium palmatum
Eryngium serbicum
Pimpinella serbicum
Seseli leucospermum

Asparagaceae
Ornithogalum orthophyllum subsp. acuminatum
Ornithogalum umbellatum subsp. orthophyllum

Asteraceae
Achillea ageratifolia
Achillea clypeolata
Achillea depressa
Achillea pannonica
Anthemis carpatica
Anthemis jordanovii
Aster tripolium subsp. pannonicus
Carduus collinus
Carduus kerneri subsp. lobulatiformis
Carduus rhodopaeus
Centaurea achtarovii
Centaurea biokovensis
Centaurea jankae
Centaurea kernerana
Centaurea macedonica
Centaurea mannagettae
Centaurea parilica
Centaurea phrygia ssp. rarauensis
Centaurea phrygia subsp. ratezatensis
Centaurea pinnatifida
Centaurea pontica
Centaurea trichocephala
Chondrilla urumovii
Cicerbita pancicii
Cirsium appendiculatum
Cirsium brachycephalum
Crepis macedonia
Crepis praemorsa subsp. dinarica
Crepis schachtii
Cyanus napuliferus
Echinops bannaticus
Hieracium praebiharicum
Inula macedonicus
Inula verbascifolia subsp. aschersoniana
Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii
Senecio macedonicus
Senecio pancicii
Tragopogon balcanicus
Youngia altaica

Boraginaceae
Alkanna pulmonaria subsp. noneiformis
Arnebia densiflora
Cynoglossum hungaricum
Halacsya
Halacsya sendtneri
Moltkia doerfleri
Onosma rhodopea
Onosma thracica
Onosma visianii
Solenanthus stamineus

Brassicaceae
Alyssum doerfleri
Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii
Barbarea vulgaris
Brassica nivalis subsp. jordanoffii
Degenia velebitica
Draba dorneri
Draba haynaldii
Draba simonkaiana
Hesperis dinarica
Hesperis matronalis subsp. nivea
Hesperis matronalis subsp. schurii
Iberis sempervirens
Malcolmia orsiniana subsp. orsiniana
Noccaea bellidifolia
Noccaea kovatsii
Noccaea praecox
Rorippa lippizensis

Campanulaceae
Campanopsis dalmatica
Campanula albanica
Campanula cespitosa
Campanula elatines var. fenestrellata
Campanula graminifolia var. linearifolia
Campanula hercegovina
Campanula jacquinii subsp. rumeliana
Campanula linifolia subsp. justiniana
Campanula oreadum
Campanula romanica
Campanula scutellata
Campanula tommasiniana
Campanula velebitica
Campanula waldsteiniana
Edraianthus glisicii
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp. niveus
Edraianthus serpyllifolius subsp. dinaricus
Edraianthus sutjeskae
Jasione montana fo. heldreichii
Jasionella bulgarica
Wahlenbergia graminifolia
Wahlenbergia serbica

Caprifoliaceae
Cephalaria radiata
Knautia albanica
Knautia macedonica
Knautia sarajevoensis
Morina persica
Scabiosa rhodopensis

Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria rhodopaea
Cerastium banaticum
Cerastium decalvans
Cerastium fontanum subsp. grandiflorum
Cerastium transsylvanicum
Dianthus bertisceus
Dianthus callizonus
Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. tenuifolius
Dianthus glacialis subsp. gelidus
Dianthus henteri
Dianthus petraeus
Dianthus spiculifolius
Heliosperma retzdorffianum
Herniaria olympica
Ixoca macrantha
Minuartia bosniaca
Minuartia cataractarum
Minuartia halacsyi
Minuartia hirsuta
Minuartia velutina
Paronychia kapela
Saponaria sicula subsp. stranjensis
Silene altaica
Silene balcanica
Silene degeneri
Silene dinarica
Silene flavescens
Silene gigantea
Silene hayekiana
Silene nivalis
Silene pindicola
Silene trojanensis
Silene vallesia subsp. graminea

Colchicaceae
Colchicum bulbocodioides subsp. hungaricum
Colchicum callicymbium
Colchicum hungaricum var. doerfleri
Merendera rhodopea

Crassulaceae
Sedum kostovii
Sedum stefco
Sedum zollikoferi

Cupressaceae
Juniperus sabina

Cyperaceae
Juncellus pannonicus

Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea balcanica

Ephedraceae
Ephedra major

Ericaceae
Bruckenthalia spiculifolia

Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbion myrsinitum
Tithymalus barrelieri subsp. hercegovinus
Tithymalus gregersenii
Tithymalus montenegrinus
Tithymalus velenovskyi

Fabaceae
Astragalus alopecurus
Astragalus exscapus
Astragalus peterfii
Astragalus physocalyx
Astragalus pseudopurpureus
Astragalus roemeri
Corothamnus agnipilus
Corothamnus rectipilosus
Genista lydia subsp. rumelica
Hippocrepis comosa
Lathyrus panicicii
Onobrychis montana
Oxyropis prenja per mts
Oxytropis jacquinii
Petteria
Petteria ramentacea
Trifolium durmitoreum
Trifolium velenowskyi
Trifolium wettsteinii

Gentianaceae
Gentiana albanica
Gentiana dinarica
Gentiana laevicalyx
Gentiana pontica
Gentianella bulgarica

Gesneriaceae
Haberlea
Haberlea rhodopensis
Jankaea
Jankaea heldreichii
Ramonda nathaliae
Ramonda serbica

Hyacinthaceae
Chouardia litardierei

Hypericaceae
Hypericum cerastoides
Hypericum rhodopeum

Iridaceae
Crocus cvijicii
Crocus lageniflorus var. oliverianus
Crocus scardicus
Iris suaveolens

Lamiaceae
Chamaedrys montana
Clinopodium frivaldszkyanum
Marrubium friwaldskyanum
Marrubium velutinum
Navicularia scardica
Origanum striatum
Salvia eichleriana
Satureja rumelica
Sclarea transsylvanica
Scorodonia arduinii
Stachys iva
Stachys spinulosa subsp. milanii
Thymus bihoriensis
Thymus stojanovii

Lecythidaceae
Amphoricarpus bertisceus
Amphoricarpus neumayeri

Lentibulariaceae
Pinguicula balcanica
Pinguicula hirtiflora

Liliaceae
Fritillaria drenovskii
Fritillaria pontica
Lilium pyrenaicum var. albanicum
Lilium pyrenaicum var. jankae
Lilium rhodopeum
Tulipa hungarica var. urumoffii
Tulipa pavlovii
Tulipa rhodopea

Linaceae
Linum dolomiticum
Linum elegans
Linum rhodopeum
Linum thracicum
Linum uninerve

Malvaceae
Kitaibela vitifolia

Nartheciaceae
Narthecium scardicum

Oleaceae
Forsythia europaea

Orchidaceae
Thelapsi dacicum ssp. banaticum

Orobanchaceae
Lathraea rhodopaea
Melampyrum dorflerii Scrophulariaceae
Pedicularis brachyodonta
Pedicularis orthantha
Siphonostegia syriaca

Papaveraceae
Fumaria jankae
Papaver corona-sancti-stephani

Pinaceae
Abies borisii-regis
Abies cephalonica
Abies omorika
Pinus heldreichii
Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica
Strobus peuce

Plantaginaceae
Globularia cordifolia
Plantago atrata
Veronica rhodopaea
Veronica saturejoides
Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. humifusa
Wulfenia baldaccii
Wulfenia blecicii
Wulfenia rohlenae

Plumbaginaceae
Goniolimon besseranum
Limonium asterotrichum

Poaceae
Avenochloa decora
Bromopsis moesiaca
Festuca bucegiensis
Festuca nitida subsp. flaccida
Festuca rupicola subsp. pachyphylla
Festuca versicolor
Koeleria subaristata
Peridictyon sanctum
Poa dolosa
Poa granitica subsp. disparilis
Puccinellia limosa
Secale strictum
Trisetum altaicum

Polygalaceae
Polygala carniolica
Polygala rhodoptera
Polygala supina

Polygonaceae
Rheum rhaponticum
Rumex balcanicus

Primulaceae
Primula auricula subsp. serratifolia
Primula deorum
Primula frondosa
Primula kitaibeliana
Primula wulfeniana
Soldanella hungarica
Soldanella pindicola

Ranunculaceae
Anemone transsilvanica
Aquilegia amaliae var. dinarica
Aquilegia chrysantha var. aurea
Aquilegia nigricans subsp. subscaposa
Delphinium simonkaianum
Eranthus hyemalis var. bulgaricus
Pulsatilla rhodopaea
Pulsatilla slavjankae
Ranunculus hayekii
Ranunculus illyricus
Ranunculus montenegrinus
Ranunculus pedatus
Ranunculus sartorianus
Ranunculus serbicus

Rosaceae
Alchemilla achtarowii
Alchemilla jumrukczalica
Alchemilla vranicensis
Geum bulgaricum
Geum rhodopeum
Potentilla chrysantha
Potentilla deorum
Potentilla fruticosa
Rosa balcarica
Rosa parilica
Sibiraea laevigata
Sibirea croatica
Sorbus bordasii
Sorbus graeca

Rubiaceae
Galium capitatum
Galium demissum subsp. stojanovii
Galium rhodopeum
Galium valantioides var. baillonii

Rutaceae
Haplophyllum balcanicum

Santalaceae
Thesium kernerianum

Sapindaceae
Acer heldreichii

Saxifragaceae
Saxifraga ferdinandi-coburgi
Saxifraga mutata ssp. demissa
Saxifraga stribrnyi

Scrophulariaceae
Scrophularia aestivalis
Verbascum balcanicum
Verbascum davidovii
Verbascum durmitoreum
Verbascum humile ssp. rhodopaeum
Verbascum pelium

Thymelaeaceae
Daphne malyana
Daphne pontica

Violaceae
Viola calcarata
Viola dacica
Viola delphinantha
Viola grisebachiana
Viola jooi
Viola orphanidis
Viola perinensis
Viola rhodopeia
Viola tricolor subsp. macedonica
Viola vilaensis


Endemics in Alphabetical Order

Abies borisii-regis
Abies cephalonica
Abies omorika
Acanthus balcanicus
Acer heldreichii
Achillea ageratifolia
Achillea clypeolata
Achillea depressa
Achillea pannonica
Alchemilla achtarowii
Alchemilla jumrukczalica
Alchemilla vranicensis
Alkanna pulmonaria subsp. noneiformis
Allium melanantherum
Alyssum doerfleri
Amphoricarpus bertisceus
Amphoricarpus neumayeri
Anemone transsilvanica
Anthemis carpatica
Anthemis jordanovii
Aquilegia amaliae var. dinarica
Aquilegia chrysantha var. aurea
Aquilegia nigricans subsp. subscaposa
Arabis ferdinandi-coburgii
Arenaria rhodopaea
Arnebia densiflora
Aster tripolium subsp. pannonicus
Astragalus alopecurus
Astragalus exscapus
Astragalus peterfii
Astragalus physocalyx
Astragalus pseudopurpureus
Astragalus roemeri
Athamanta macedonica
Athamanta turbith subsp. hungarica
Avenochloa decora
Barbarea vulgaris
Brassica nivalis subsp. jordanoffii
Bromopsis moesiaca
Bruckenthalia spiculifolia
Bupleurum aristatum var. karglii
Campanopsis dalmatica
Campanula albanica
Campanula cespitosa
Campanula elatines var. fenestrellata
Campanula graminifolia var. linearifolia
Campanula hercegovina
Campanula jacquinii subsp. rumeliana
Campanula linifolia subsp. justiniana
Campanula oreadum
Campanula romanica
Campanula scutellata
Campanula tommasiniana
Campanula velebitica
Campanula waldsteiniana
Carduus collinus
Carduus kerneri subsp. lobulatiformis
Carduus rhodopaeus
Carum velenovskyi
Centaurea achtarovii
Centaurea biokovensis
Centaurea jankae
Centaurea kernerana
Centaurea macedonica
Centaurea mannagettae
Centaurea parilica
Centaurea phrygia ssp. rarauensis
Centaurea phrygia subsp. ratezatensis
Centaurea pinnatifida
Centaurea pontica
Centaurea trichocephala
Cephalaria radiata
Cerastium banaticum
Cerastium decalvans
Cerastium fontanum subsp. grandiflorum
Cerastium transsylvanicum
Chamaedrys montana
Chondrilla urumovii
Chouardia litardierei
Cicerbita pancicii
Cirsium appendiculatum
Cirsium brachycephalum
Clinopodium frivaldszkyanum
Colchicum bulbocodioides subsp. hungaricum
Colchicum callicymbium
Colchicum hungaricum var. doerfleri
Corothamnus agnipilus
Corothamnus rectipilosus
Crepis macedonia
Crepis praemorsa subsp. dinarica
Crepis schachtii
Crocus cvijicii
Crocus lageniflorus var. oliverianus
Crocus scardicus
Cyanus napuliferus
Cynoglossum hungaricum
Daphne malyana
Daphne pontica
Degenia velebitica
Delphinium simonkaianum
Dianthus bertisceus
Dianthus callizonus
Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. tenuifolius
Dianthus glacialis subsp. gelidus
Dianthus henteri
Dianthus petraeus
Dianthus spiculifolius
Dioscorea balcanica
Draba dorneri
Draba haynaldii
Draba simonkaiana
Echinops bannaticus
Edraianthus glisicii
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp. niveus
Edraianthus serpyllifolius subsp. dinaricus
Edraianthus sutjeskae
Ephedra major
Eranthus hyemalis var. bulgaricus
Eryngium palmatum
Eryngium serbicum
Euphorbion myrsinitum
Festuca bucegiensis
Festuca nitida subsp. flaccida
Festuca rupicola subsp. pachyphylla
Festuca versicolor
Forsythia europaea
Fritillaria drenovskii
Fritillaria pontica
Fumaria jankae
Galium capitatum
Galium demissum subsp. stojanovii
Galium rhodopeum
Galium valantioides var. baillonii
Genista lydia subsp. rumelica
Gentiana albanica
Gentiana dinarica
Gentiana laevicalyx
Gentiana pontica
Gentianella bulgarica
Geum bulgaricum
Geum rhodopeum
Globularia cordifolia
Goniolimon besseranum
Haberlea
Haberlea rhodopensis
Halacsya
Halacsya sendtneri
Haplophyllum balcanicum
Heliosperma retzdorffianum
Herniaria olympica
Hesperis dinarica
Hesperis matronalis subsp. nivea
Hesperis matronalis subsp. schurii
Hieracium praebiharicum
Hippocrepis comosa
Hypericum cerastoides
Hypericum rhodopeum
Iberis sempervirens
Inula macedonicus
Inula verbascifolia subsp. aschersoniana
Iris suaveolens
Ixoca macrantha
Jankaea
Jankaea heldreichii
Jasione montana fo. heldreichii
Jasionella bulgarica
Juncellus pannonicus
Juniperus sabina
Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii
Kitaibela vitifolia
Knautia albanica
Knautia macedonica
Knautia sarajevoensis
Koeleria subaristata
Lathraea rhodopaea
Lathyrus panicicii
Lilium pyrenaicum var. albanicum
Lilium pyrenaicum var. jankae
Lilium rhodopeum
Limonium asterotrichum
Linum dolomiticum
Linum elegans
Linum rhodopeum
Linum thracicum
Linum uninerve
Malcolmia orsiniana subsp. orsiniana
Marrubium friwaldskyanum
Marrubium velutinum
Melampyrum dorflerii Scrophulariaceae
Merendera rhodopea
Minuartia bosniaca
Minuartia cataractarum
Minuartia halacsyi
Minuartia hirsuta
Minuartia velutina
Moltkia doerfleri
Morina persica
Narthecium scardicum
Navicularia scardica
Noccaea bellidifolia
Noccaea kovatsii
Noccaea praecox
Onobrychis montana
Onosma rhodopea
Onosma thracica
Onosma visianii
Origanum striatum
Ornithogalum orthophyllum subsp. acuminatum
Ornithogalum umbellatum subsp. orthophyllum
Oxyropis prenja per mts
Oxytropis jacquinii
Papaver corona-sancti-stephani
Paronychia kapela
Pedicularis brachyodonta
Pedicularis orthantha
Peridictyon sanctum
Petteria
Petteria ramentacea
Pimpinella serbicum
Pinguicula balcanica
Pinguicula hirtiflora
Pinus heldreichii
Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica
Plantago atrata
Poa dolosa
Poa granitica subsp. disparilis
Polygala carniolica
Polygala rhodoptera
Polygala supina
Potentilla chrysantha
Potentilla deorum
Potentilla fruticosa
Primula auricula subsp. serratifolia
Primula deorum
Primula frondosa
Primula kitaibeliana
Primula wulfeniana
Puccinellia limosa
Pulsatilla rhodopaea
Pulsatilla slavjankae
Ramonda nathaliae
Ramonda serbica
Ranunculus hayekii
Ranunculus illyricus
Ranunculus montenegrinus
Ranunculus pedatus
Ranunculus sartorianus
Ranunculus serbicus
Rheum rhaponticum
Rorippa lippizensis
Rosa balcarica
Rosa parilica
Rumex balcanicus
Salvia eichleriana
Saponaria sicula subsp. stranjensis
Satureja rumelica
Saxifraga ferdinandi-coburgi
Saxifraga mutata ssp. demissa
Saxifraga stribrnyi
Scabiosa rhodopensis
Sclarea transsylvanica
Scorodonia arduinii
Scrophularia aestivalis
Secale strictum
Sedum kostovii
Sedum stefco
Sedum zollikoferi
Senecio macedonicus
Senecio pancicii
Seseli leucospermum
Sibiraea laevigata
Sibirea croatica
Silene altaica
Silene balcanica
Silene degeneri
Silene dinarica
Silene flavescens
Silene gigantea
Silene hayekiana
Silene nivalis
Silene pindicola
Silene trojanensis
Silene vallesia subsp. graminea
Siphonostegia syriaca
Soldanella hungarica
Soldanella pindicola
Solenanthus stamineus
Sorbus bordasii
Sorbus graeca
Stachys iva
Stachys spinulosa subsp. milanii
Strobus peuce
Thelapsi dacicum ssp. banaticum
Thesium kernerianum
Thymus bihoriensis
Thymus stojanovii
Tithymalus barrelieri subsp. hercegovinus
Tithymalus gregersenii
Tithymalus montenegrinus
Tithymalus velenovskyi
Tragopogon balcanicus
Trifolium durmitoreum
Trifolium velenowskyi
Trifolium wettsteinii
Trisetum altaicum
Tulipa hungarica var. urumoffii
Tulipa pavlovii
Tulipa rhodopea
Verbascum balcanicum
Verbascum davidovii
Verbascum durmitoreum
Verbascum humile ssp. rhodopaeum
Verbascum pelium
Veronica rhodopaea
Veronica saturejoides
Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. humifusa
Viola calcarata
Viola dacica
Viola delphinantha
Viola grisebachiana
Viola jooi
Viola orphanidis
Viola perinensis
Viola rhodopeia
Viola tricolor subsp. macedonica
Viola vilaensis
Wahlenbergia graminifolia
Wahlenbergia serbica
Wulfenia baldaccii
Wulfenia blecicii
Wulfenia rohlenae
Youngia altaica


Summary

Included here is northern Greece (including the Pindos Mountains), parts of Albania, Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia (including the Karawanken and Julian Alps), but not the Adriatic coastal areas of these states. Its northeastern boundary runs mostly along the valley of the River Sava and continues along the Danube River to include most of Bulgaria with the exception of its northeastern steppe regions. In the southeast it extends into European Turkey. Also included is the so-called Pannonic zone named after the old Roman province of Pannonia, which is a western enclave of the steppe region and centred on the Hungarian Plain but also includes southern Romania and northern Bulgaria. In fact, it forms a corridor of lowlands along either side of the Danube River on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea.

Of the endemic plants so far recorded there are 335 species in 160 genera and 52 families. There are four endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families. However, an unusual feature is the presence of endemic, archaic members of the now largely tropical and subtropical family Gesneriaceae.

References

Polunin, O. 1980. Flowers of Greece and the Balkans. Oxford University Press.

Turrill, W. B. 1929. The Plant life of the Balkan Peninsula - a phytogeographical study. Oxford.

Webb, D. A. 1966. The Flora of European Turkey. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 6: 1-100.